Project Z2 - Magnetoelectric Sensor Characterization

The aim of this central project is the functional characterization of the different magnetoelectric sensors that are investigated and manufactured in the A projects using the electronic readout circuits and signal processing methods developed in B1 and B2. It includes measurements of the spectral distribution of noise, the limit of detection (measured in resonance and with frequency conversion techniques), the bandwidth of operation, the robustness against acoustic interferences, and distortions produced by neighboring sensors, to name just a few. As for the already established sensor types, the measurement procedures will be automated for the new sensor concepts and corresponding support will be provided to the researchers from the related A and B projects. Furthermore, the results will be collected to perform a meaningful comparison of the sensor concepts characterized under the same measurement conditions.

To arrive at viable systems for biomedical diagnostics, sensor arrays will be built with sensors fabricated in project Z1. The arrays will be investigated and related limits will be analyzed. Crucially, this will be done for a sensor array system suitable for deep brain stimulation (DBS) measurements from projet T1 with the final goal to get completely rid of a head scanner. This will enable confident results for patients due to much faster measurement time. Related measurements on healthy subjects and patients will be prepared and support will be given to the>medical personnel. The same holds for the movement analysis B9, the cardiologic project B10, and the 3D flux density measurements for project B7. In addition, the hardware in terms of amplifiers, signal generators, stimulators, and interfaces will be extended and enhanced permanently in this central project.


Involved Researchers

Person Role
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Höft
Electrical Engineering
Microwave Group
Project lead
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schmidt
Electrical Engineering
Digital Signal Processing
Project lead
Dr.-Ing. Eric Elzenheimer
Electrical Engineering
Digital Signal Processing and System Theory
Doctoral researcher


Role within the Collaborative Research Centre

The project Z2 will participate in the focus groups “Comparison of Sensor Concepts” and “Biomedical Applications”. Specifically, this project will collaborate closely with all sensor-producing projects in terms of characterization of different types of ME sensors. In particular, collaborations with the following projects are planned:

A1 (Magnetostrictive Multilayers for Magnetoelectric Sensors) ME sensor characterization.
A2 (Hybrid Magnetoelectric Sensors based on Mechanically Soft Composite Materials) Support with sensor characterization.
A5 (Piezotronic Magnetoelectric Composites) Support with sensor characterization.
A7 (Electrically Modulated Magnetoelectric Sensors) Functional and directional characterization of ME sensors.
A8 (Modelling of Magnetoelectric Sensors) Transfer function measurements.
A9 (Surface Acoustic Wave Magnetic Field Sensors) SAW sensor characterization at carrier frequencies up to the GHz range.
A10 (Magnetic Noise of Magnetoelectric Sensors) Conduction of noise density measurement.
B1 (Sensor Noise Performance and Analogue System Design) Takeover of analogue hardware concepts of individual sensors for ME and SAW sensor characterization and related front ends for biomedical applications.
B2 (Digital Signal Processing) Takeover of digital signal processing routines for ME and SAW sensor characterization and for biomedical applications.
B7 (3D-Imaging of Magnetically Labelled Cells) Support with sensor characterization and non-magnetic motor concepts.
B9 (Magnetoelectric Sensors for Movement Detection and Analysis) Hardware support.
B10 (Magnetoelectric Sensor Systems for Cardiologic Applications) Hardware support.
T1 (Transfer project – Individualized Deep Brain Stimulation) Support for biomagnetic measurements and related data acquisition.
Z1 (MEMS Magnetoelectric Sensor Fabrication) ME sensor characterization.


Project-related Publications

E. Engelhardt, E. Elzenheimer, J. Hoffmann, C. Meledeth, N. Frey, G. Schmidt: Non-Invasive Electroanatomical Mapping: A State-Space Approach for Myocardial Current Density Estimation, Bioengineering, 10(12), 1432, 2023. 
M. Gerhard, L. Zimoch, C. Dorn, E. Elzenheimer, C. Bald, T. Lerg, J. Hoffmann, S. Kaps, M. Höft, G. Schmidt, S. Wulfinghoff, R. Adelung: Self-powered Elementary Hybrid Magnetoelectric Sensor, Nano Energy, vol. 115, 108720, 2023. 
J. Hoffmann, C. Bald, T. Schmidt, M. Boueke, E. Engelhardt, K. Krüger, E. Elzenheimer, C. Hansen, W. Maetzler, G. Schmidt: Designing and Validating Magnetic Motion Sensing Approaches with a Real-time Simulation Pipeline, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 455-458, 2023. 
E. Engelhardt, E. Elzenheimer, J. Hoffman, T. Schmidt, A. Zaman, N. Frey, G. Schmidt: A Concept for Myocardial Current Density Estimation with Magnetoelectric Sensors, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 89-92, 2023. 
H. Wolframm, J. Hoffmann, R. Burgardt, E. Elzenheimer, G. Schmidt, M. Höft: PCB Coil Enables In Situ Calibration of Magnetoelectric Sensor Systems, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 567-570, 2023. 
E. Elzenheimer, P. Hayes, L. Thormählen, E. Engelhardt, A. Zaman, E. Quandt, N. Frey, M. Höft, G. Schmidt: Investigation of Converse Magnetoelectric Thin Film Sensors for Magnetocardiography, IEEE Sensors Journal Print ISSN, pp. 5660-5669, 2023. 
J. Muñoz, J. Arbustini, E. Elzenheimer, M. Höft, A. Bahr: Digital Approaches on Frequency Tuning for Magnetoelectric Sensors, ICECS, 29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits & Systems, Glasgow, Scotland, 2022. 
H. Wang, J. Arbustini, E. Elzenheimer, V. Schell, M. Höft, E. Quandt, G. Schmidt, H. Heidari, A. Bahr: Study of Chopping Magnetic Flux Modulation on Surface Acoustic Wave Magnetic Sensor, ICECS, 29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits & Systems, Glasgow, Scotland, 2022. 
J. Arbustini, J. Muñoz, H. Wang, E. Elzenheimer, J. Hoffmann, L. Thormählen, P. Hayes, F. Niekiel, H. Heidari, M. Höft, E. Quandt, G. Schmidt, A. Bahr: MEMS Magnetic Field Source for Frequency Conversion Approaches for ME Sensors, BMT2022 , Joint Annual Conference of the Austrian, German and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering, 2022. 
E. Engelhardt, A. Zaman, E. Elzenheimer, N. Frey, G. Schmidt: Towards Analytically Computable Quality Classes for MCG Sensor Systems, BMT 2022, Joint Annual Conference of the Austrian, German and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering, 2022. 
E. Elzenheimer, C. Bald, E. Engelhardt, J. Hoffmann, P. Hayes, J. Arbustini, A. Bahr, E. Quandt, M. Höft, G. Schmidt: Quantitative Evaluation for Magnetoelectric Sensor Systems in Biomagnetic Diagnostics, MDPI Sensors, vol. 22, no. 3, 1018, 2022.
J. Hoffmann, E. Elzenheimer, C. Bald, C. Hansen, W. Maetzler, G. Schmidt: Active Magnetoelectric Motion Sensing: Examining Performance Metrics with an Experimental Setup, MDPI Sensors, vol. 21, no. 23, 8000, 2021. 
P. Durdaut, C. Müller, A. Kittmann, V. Schell, A. Bahr, E. Quandt, R. Knöchel, M. Höft, J. McCord: Phase Noise of SAW Delay Line Magnetic Field Sensors, Sensors, vol. 21, issue 16, 5631, 2021.
M. Yalaz, A. Teplyuk, G. Deuschl, M. Höft: Dipole Fit Localization of the Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode using 3D Magnetic Field Measurements, IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 69, issue 7, 2020.
M. Ö. Özden, A. Teplyuk, Ö. Gümüs, D. Meyners, M. Höft, M. Gerken: Magnetoelectric Cantilever Sensors under Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field Excitation, AIP Advances, vol. 10, issue 2, 025132, 2020.
P. Hayes, M. Jovičević Klug, S. Toxværd, P. Durdaut, V. Schell, A. Teplyuk, D. Burdin, A. Winkler, R. Weser, Y. Fetisov, M. Höft, R. Knöchel, J. McCord, E. Quandt: Converse Magnetoelectric Composite Resonator for Sensing Small Magnetic Fields, Scientific Reports, vol. 9, 16355, 2019.
M. Yalaz, A. Teplyuk, M. Muthuraman, G. Deuschl, M. Höft: The Magnetic Properties of Electrical Pulses Delivered by Deep Brain Stimulation Systems, IEEE Trans on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 69, issue 7, 2019.